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    Samples collected by rosette or hand-deployed niskin, directly transferred into acid-washed and backed glass vials with teflon-lined silicone septa caps, and frozen at -20 or -80 C. Analyses conducted by high-temperature catalytic combustion and calibrated again standards provided by the University of Miami. In 2002, all samples were total organic carbon (TOC), and in 2003-04, all samples were dissolved organc carbon (DOC, filtered through combusted GFF), and TOC was also collected at full stations at in surface waters at the overwintering site.

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    This study is based on sampling conducted partially within the framework of the (1) Arctic Biological Station program-Biological Oceanography Section (ABS-BOS) from 1973 to 1975, (2) CCGS Sir Wilfrid Laurier program and CASES from 2002 to 2004, (3) IPY-CFL from 2007 to 2008, (4) through research collaborations among the CCGS Amundsen program, ArcticNet, BP Exploration Operating Company Limited, ExxonMobil and Imperial Oil from 2009 to 2011, and (5) BREA in 2012. Macrobenthos communities were sampled at 235 stations from 1973 to 2012 between April and November through different scientific programs and onboard different research vessels. Faunal samples were collected mostly with a USNEL box corer (0.25 m2), except from 1973 to 2002 where different grab models were used. Due to shared sediment requirements, on average 0.12 ± 0.05 m2 of sediment were sieved from each box core or grab sample. All box core and grab catches were washed under running seawater onboard over a 0.4 mm sieve during the CASES program and over a 0.5 mm sieve during all other programs, resulting in all macrobenthic invertebrates considered here being ≥ 0.5 mm size. Taxa were preserved in a 4 to 5 % seawater-formaldehyde solution buffered with sodium tetraethylborate for later identification in the lab and then transferred in 70 % ethanol for long-term storage.

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    General description: A C-band polarimetric scatterometer was used to collect the backscattering signatures of new ice, first year ice, and multiyear ice in as many forms as possible during the fall freeze-up and winter period in Southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. This instrument is mounted on the port side of the ship (CCGS Amundsen) and the backscattering signatures were collected in conjunction with geophysical sampling of the region that was scanned in an attempt to provide the physical reasons for the electromagnetic interactions. This variable will be used in modeling studies and in coordinating in situ measurements with satellite data. Methology: The scatterometer measured the backscatter from the surface of interest. Incidence angles ranged from 20 to 60 degrees in 5 degree steps, with a swath of 60 degrees in the azimuth. Several scans were collected for statistical purposes (generally 5). Either during the scans, or immediately afterwards, geophysical sampling was performed in and around the region of the scan in order to gather ground truth data. The dataset contains unprocessed and processed polarimetric data as a function of incidence angle.

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    General description: A C-band polarimetric scatterometer was used to collect the backscattering signatures of new ice, first year ice, and multiyear ice in as many forms as possible during the fall freeze-up and winter period in Southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. This instrument is mounted on the port side of the ship (CCGS Amundsen) and the backscattering signatures were collected in conjunction with geophysical sampling of the region that was scanned in an attempt to provide the physical reasons for the electromagnetic interactions. This variable will be used in modeling studies and in coordinating in situ measurements with satellite data. Methology: The scatterometer measured the backscatter from the surface of interest. Incidence angles ranged from 20 to 60 degrees in 5 degree steps, with a swath of 60 degrees in the azimuth. Several scans were collected for statistical purposes (generally 5). Either during the scans, or immediately afterwards, geophysical sampling was performed in and around the region of the scan in order to gather ground truth data. Geophysical data are summarized in three metadata forms: CCIN Reference No 10108, 10097 and 1555. Data type: The dataset contains unprocessed and processed polarimetric data as a function of incidence angle.

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    This dataset consists of vertical profiles of discrete depth sampled weekly at a fixed station under the ice in Franklin Bay (Southeastern Beaufort Sea) for chlorophyll a concentration of different size fractions: >0.7µm and >5µm. Sampling took place from December 2003 to May 2004 through the moon-pool of the CCGS Amundsen for depth ranging from 10m to the bottom and through a hole in the ice cover for the surface depth (3-10m). Chlorophyll a concentrations were determined by fluorimetry.

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    The navigation data of the Amundsen scientific expeditions between 2003 and 2019 were recorded with the Position and Orientation Systems for Marine Vessels (POS-MV) and C-Nav Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) Precise Point Positioning systems. Two sets of controlled data are provided for each year of expedition. The first set is at time intervals of seconds for every day of the cruise and the second set is at 15 minute intervals. The data consist of Latitude, Longitude, Heading, Roll, Pitch, Heave, Track, Speed and Global Positioning System (GPS) sources at the second time intervals. The vessel's tracks in .kml (Google Earth format) were derived from the 15 minute time intervals dataset and are also provided. Research programs participating in the Amundsen expeditions between 2003 and 2017 were CASES, ArcticNet, IPY-CFL, Solas, Geotraces, Malina, IOL and BP, Jamstec, Netcare, Weston, BREA, iBO and GreenEdge.

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    This dataset consists of vertical profiles of discrete depth sampled weekly at a fixed station under the ice in Franklin Bay (Southeastern Beaufort Sea) to determine bacteria abundance. Sampling took place from December 2003 to May 2004 through the moon-pool of the CCGS Amundsen for depth ranging from 10m to the bottom and through a hole in the ice cover for the surface depth (3-10m). Bacteria concentrations were counted by flow cytometry.

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    Processed atmospheric ceiling heights were recorded from a CT25K ceilometer. The instrument was mounted on the CCGS Amundsen icebreaker on the port side directly behind the ship's wheelhouse. Data were collected during transit, set transects, 24-hour stations, and multi-day drift stations. The instrument was running continuously during the IPY-CFL project, with only minor interruptions for maintenance activities.

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    The CTD data was obtained during LEG 01 of the 2003 CASES scientific cruise #0303. This Leg was carried out from September 8th 2003 to October 15th 2003 aboard the CCGS Amundsen. There were 37 CTD casts in Leg 1. Thirty-six casts, associated to 16 oceanographic stations, are located in the Beaufort Sea research area. The following parameters were measured: temperature, conductivity and pressure (with a Sea-Bird 911 probe), oxygen (Sea-Bird 43), fluorescence (Seapoint fluorometer), transmittance (Wetlabs C-Star transmissometer), PAR/Irradiance and SPAR/Irradiance (Biospherical Instruments QC2300). Data were quality controlled. Data are available on the Polar Data Catalogue and at the Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS) of Fisheries and Ocean Canada.

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    The CTD data was obtained during the 2007-2008 scientific cruise #0804 within the framework of the Circumpolar Flaw Lead Study (CFL). This program included a year round sampling expedition to study the air-sea interactions occurring in the ice-free sections of the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. The data were collected from June 7 to July 13, 2008, aboard the CCGS Amundsen. There were 180 CTD casts, associated to 69 stations (including ice-drifts), located in the Beaufort Sea research area. The following parameters were measured: temperature, conductivity and pressure (with a Sea-Bird SBE-9plus), dissolved oxygen (Sea-Bird SBE-43), pH (Sea-Bird SBE-18-I), fluorescence (Seapoint chlorophyll fluorometer), nitrate concentration (Satlantic MBARI-ISUS 5T), transmittance (Wetlabs C-Star transmissometer), light intensity (PAR; Biospherical Instruments QCP2300) and surface light intensity (sPAR; Biospherical Instruments QCP2200). Quality control procedures were applied to the data. Data are available on the Polar Data Catalogue and at the Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS) of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.