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    The navigation data of the Amundsen scientific expeditions between 2003 and 2019 were recorded with the Position and Orientation Systems for Marine Vessels (POS-MV) and C-Nav Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) Precise Point Positioning systems. Two sets of controlled data are provided for each year of expedition. The first set is at time intervals of seconds for every day of the cruise and the second set is at 15 minute intervals. The data consist of Latitude, Longitude, Heading, Roll, Pitch, Heave, Track, Speed and Global Positioning System (GPS) sources at the second time intervals. The vessel's tracks in .kml (Google Earth format) were derived from the 15 minute time intervals dataset and are also provided. Research programs participating in the Amundsen expeditions between 2003 and 2017 were CASES, ArcticNet, IPY-CFL, Solas, Geotraces, Malina, IOL and BP, Jamstec, Netcare, Weston, BREA, iBO and GreenEdge.

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    The data set is composed of raw files recorded with the Kongsberg Maritime SX90 long-range, low frequency (20-30 kHz) fisheries sonar during the CCGS Amundsen 2013 summer expedition in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. The sonar transducer is lowered 2.5 feet below the hull through a gate-valve. The cylindrical 256-elements transducer allows both a horizontal and a vertical sound transmission, and the omni-directional (horizontal) sonar beam can be tilted from +10 to -60 degrees to scan a large portion of the water column. The raw acoustic data were saved onto an external drive and print screens of interesting targets (fish schools) were recorded.

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    The CTD data was obtained during the 2007-2008 ArcticNet scientific cruise #0806. The data were collected from September 5 to 25, 2008, aboard the CCGS Amundsen. There were 83 casts, associated to 44 oceanographic stations, in the Baffin Bay area. The following parameters were measured: temperature, conductivity and pressure (with a Sea-Bird SBE-9plus), dissolved oxygen (Sea-Bird SBE-43), pH (Sea-Bird SBE-18-I), fluorescence (Seapoint chlorophyll fluorometer), nitrate concentration (Satlantic MBARI-ISUS 5T), transmittance (Wetlabs C-Star transmissometer), light intensity (PAR; Biospherical Instruments QCP2300) and surface light intensity (sPAR; Biospherical Instruments QCP2200). Quality control procedures were applied to the data. Data are available on the Polar Data Catalogue and at the Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS) of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

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    Data were mainly collected from the CCGS Amundsen (2015 to 2019) and from the William-Kennedy (2019). An Agassiz trawl (1.5 m width × 0.7 m height, cod end of 0.5 cm mesh size) was towed on the seabed at a speed of 1.5-2 knots for 3 to 5 minutes to survey epibenthic species diversity, abundance, and biomass. Retrieved samples were washed with seawater in a sieve (2 mm mesh), and organisms were sorted and identified to the lowest taxonomical level possible. Each taxon was counted, and biomass was measured. A box corer was deployed to quantitatively sample diversity, abundance, and biomass of endobenthic organisms (macrobenthos > 0.5 mm). After retrieval of the box corer, a subsample of 0.125 m2 area and 12-15 cm depth was collected and passed through a 0.5 mm mesh sieve to separate sediment from endofauna. Organisms were immediately preserved in a 4% buffered formaldehyde solution for further taxonomical identification in the laboratory.

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    Processed atmospheric ceiling heights were recorded from a CT25K ceilometer. The instrument was mounted on the CCGS Amundsen icebreaker on the port side directly behind the ship's wheelhouse. Data were collected during transit, set transects, 24-hour stations, and multi-day drift stations. The instrument was running continuously during the IPY-CFL project, with only minor interruptions for maintenance activities.

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    During the ArcticNet annual cruises of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen, characteristics of the surface sea water (temperature, salinity, dissolved CO2 and O2) are monitored in conjunction with properties of the near-surface atmosphere (basic meteorological elements, incident radiation, CO2 concentration) to observe the relationship between the surface microclimate and the air-sea exchange, with particular interest in CO2. Central to this integrated dataset is an under-way sea water pCO2 system (General Oceanics 8050) attached to the ship's clean water intake. The following variables were measured continuously and logged at 1 minute intervals: pCO2sw (LI7000 gas analyzer); equilibrator water temperature; conductivity; pH; and, dissolved O2.

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    During the ArcticNet annual cruises of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen, characteristics of the near-surface atmosphere (basic meteorological elements, incident radiation, CO2 concentration) are monitored in conjunction with surface sea water properties (temperature, salinity, dissolved CO2 and O2) to observe the relationship between the surface micro-climate and the air-sea exchange, with particular interest in CO2. As part of this integrated dataset, the following radiation variables were recorded at 1 minute intervals (instrument used to collect each variable is in parentheses): incoming shortwave radiation (Eppley pyranometer, model PSP); incoming longwave radiation (Eppley pyrgeometer, model PIR); incoming photosynthetically active radiation (Kipp & Zonen, PAR-Lite); and, incoming UVa,b (Kipp & Zonen, UVS-AB-T). All instruments were mounted on a meteorological tower on the bow of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen.

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    The Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen is equipped with BIONESS (Bedford Institute of Oceanography Net and Environmental Sampling System). It is a multiple-net sampler for zooplancton and micronekton (pelagic animals 1-10 cm in length). It uses a design with nets arranged horizontally rather than vertically. An integrated CTD unit is also integrated to the system and allows recording of the sampled water characteristics. This dataset is composed of CTD profiles and specific data for the volume of water going through the nets during their operation. The BIONESS was deployed during the 2005, 2006, 2013, 2014 and 2016 Amundsen scientific expeditions in summer and fall. The Bioness-CTD data were corrected and controlled by comparing them to CTD-Rosette data when available. Outliers and suspicious measurements were removed from the dataset. Variables are provided for every decibar (dbar) between the maximum and minimum pressure recorded for each cast. Research programs participating in the Amundsen expeditions between 2005 and 2016 include ArcticNet, IOL and BP, BREA, Weston, Netcare, JAMSTEC, iBO and GreenEdge. In-situ data belong to and are under the responsibility of the leading Nets scientists while physical and chemical data from the sensors are part of the Amundsen core data collection.

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    During the ArcticNet annual cruises of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen, characteristics of the surface sea water (temperature, salinity, dissolved CO2 and O2) are monitored in conjunction with properties of the near-surface atmosphere (basic meteorological elements, incident radiation, CO2 concentration) to observe the relationship between the surface microclimate and the air-sea exchange, with particular interest in CO2. Central to this project, the following variables were measured continuously at 1 minute intervals using a custom-built pCO2 equilibrator attached to the ship's clean water intake: -pCO2sw (LI7000 gas analyzer) -Equilibrator water temperature

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    During the ArcticNet annual cruises of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen, characteristics of the near-surface atmosphere (basic meteorological elements, incident radiation, CO2 concentration) are monitored in conjunction with surface sea water properties (temperature, salinity, dissolved CO2 and O2) to observe the relationship between the surface micro-climate and the air-sea exchange, with particular interest in CO2. Central to this integrated dataset, the following meteorological variables were recorded at 1 minute intervals (instrument used to collect each variable is in parentheses, and approximate instrument height above surface is indicated): wind speed (RM Young Wind Monitor 05106-10) - 16m height; wind direction (RM Young Wind Monitor 05106-10) -16m height; air temperature (Vaisala HMP45C212) - 15m height; relative humidity (Vaisala HMP45C212) -15m height; and, surface temperature (Apogee IR Transducer SI-111) - 8m height, atmospheric pressure. All instruments were mounted on a meteorological tower on the bow of the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen.